Claymore Swords: The Power of Famous Scottish Weaponry (2024)

Claymore is a type of sword that originated in Scotland. The term “Claymore” is derived from the Scottish Gaelic word “Claidheamh-Mòr,” which translates to “great sword.” The Claymore is a two-edged, large, and typically broadsword with a basket hilt. It gained prominence during the late medieval and Renaissance periods.

The design of the claymore evolved, but it generally featured a blade that was around 36 to 40 inches (about 91 to 102 cm) in length. The hilt often had distinctive quillons (crossguards) that formed a basket-like structure to protect the wielder’s hand. The basket hilt design provided both offensive and defensive capabilities, allowing for effective thrusting and slashing maneuvers.

Claymores were used by Scottish Highlanders, particularly during the 16th to 18th centuries. These swords were associated with the Scottish clans and played a significant role in the country’s military history. The term “claymore” is sometimes used colloquially to refer to large two-handed swords in general, but the specific design associated with Scotland is the one mentioned above.

Design and Features of Scottish Claymore Sword

The allure of the Claymore sword lies not just in its storied history but also in its meticulous design and distinctive features that set it apart as a formidable weapon. Let’s dissect the anatomy of the claymore, exploring the intricacies that make it a masterpiece of medieval craftsmanship.

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Claymore Weapons Blade Construction

At the heart of the claymore’s design is its robust two-edged blade, a testament to the skilled craftsmanship of its creators. Typically measuring between 36 to 40 inches, the blade exhibits a perfect balance, allowing for both precise thrusts and sweeping slashes. The blade’s double edges contribute to its versatility in combat, providing warriors with a range of offensive tactics.

Basket Hilt

The crowning jewel of the claymore’s design is its distinctive basket hilt, an innovation that serves both practical and aesthetic purposes. The basket hilt, resembling a protective cage for the hand, is not merely ornamental; it plays a crucial role in safeguarding the wielder. This unique feature provides unparalleled hand protection, allowing for a secure grip during battle and enhancing the overall defensive capabilities of the sword.

Evolution of Claymores Design

In the evolutionary trajectory of the bipartite claymore, we trace its roots to the singular-handed blades wielded by Scandinavians in the waning epochs of the Viking era, finding themselves transplanted to the rugged landscapes of Scotland.

A pivotal juncture materialized at the advent of the 14th century, birthing the inaugural manifestation of a distinctive Scottish blade archetype. This epochal occurrence harks back to the tumultuous era known as the Wars of Scottish Independence, spanning the chronological expanse from 1286 to 1329.

Balance and Maneuverability

One of the remarkable aspects of the claymore’s design is its emphasis on balance. The distribution of weight along the blade ensures a nimble yet powerful weapon. This balance allowed skilled warriors to execute precise strikes, making the claymore not just a symbol of strength but also a tool of finesse on the battlefield.

Material and Craftsmanship

Crafted from high-quality steel, the claymore’s blade exemplifies the metallurgical prowess of its makers. The hilt components, often a blend of iron and leather, showcase the meticulous attention to detail. The combination of skilled craftsmanship and premium materials not only contributed to the sword’s effectiveness in combat but also made it a symbol of prestige and quality.

How Much Does a Claymore Weigh?

The weight of a claymore sword can vary, but on average, historical claymores typically weigh between 5 to 7 pounds (approximately 2.3 to 3.2 kilograms). The distribution of weight along the blade and the inclusion of the basket hilt contributed to the overall balance of the sword.

Modern reproductions may vary in weight, and factors such as the specific design, materials used, and intended use (whether for display or functional purposes) can influence the weight of contemporary claymores. For collectors and enthusiasts, the weight of a claymore is a crucial aspect to consider, as it impacts the sword’s handling and usability.

Varieties and Classifications of Claymore Swords

The Claymore historically referred to a specific type of Scottish sword, generally characterized by a two-handed design with distinctive features. However, there isn’t a strict categorization of “types” of Claymore swords. Instead, variations in design and features might be seen across different historical examples or modern reproductions. Here are a few notable variations:

1. The Two-handed Scottish Claymore (Highland)

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The two-handed Claymore is a Scottish longsword that gained prominence in the late medieval period, characterized by a double-edged blade and an extended hilt for two-handed use. Originating in the 15th century, it typically measured around 55 inches in length, with a blade averaging 40 inches.

The sword’s name, “Claymore,” is derived from the Gaelic term “Claidheamh mòr,” meaning “great sword.” It was a versatile weapon, renowned for its cutting power and effectiveness in battles like the Wars of Scottish Independence. The two-handed Claymore’s design evolved to suit the battlefield tactics of the time, and its use persisted into the Renaissance.

Its weight ranged from 5 to 7 pounds, catering to a balance between maneuverability and striking force. As firearms became prevalent, the Claymore gradually fell out of military use but remained iconic in Scottish history, embodying the martial spirit of the Highland warriors.

NameTwo-Handed Claymore
OriginScotland, 15th century
CharacteristicsDouble-edged blade, extended hilt for two-handed use
LengthApproximately 55 inches, with a blade averaging 40 inches
Gaelic OriginDerived from “Claidheamh mòr,” meaning “great sword”
Historical SignificanceRenowned for cutting power; played a crucial role in battles like the Wars of Scottish Independence; evolved design for medieval tactics, persisted into the Renaissance
Weight Range5 to 7 pounds, balancing maneuverability and striking force
LegacyGradual decline with the advent of firearms; iconic in Scottish history, symbolizing the martial spirit of Highland warriors

2. Flamberge Claymore Sword

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The Flamberge Claymore is a distinctive type of sword characterized by a wavy or flame-shaped blade, known as a flamberge. Originating in the late medieval period, around the 15th century, this design aimed to inflict more damage upon withdrawal from a wound.

The undulating edge caused additional pain and injury as it was pulled from an opponent. The Flamberge Claymore was favored for its unique and intimidating appearance, as well as its functional advantage in combat.

These swords were typically characterized by a broad, double-edged blade with a varying degree of waviness. The Flamberge design was employed in various regions and periods, contributing to the rich tapestry of medieval weaponry.

NameFlamberge Claymore
OriginLate medieval period, around the 15th century
CharacteristicsDistinctive wavy or flame-shaped blade known as a flamberge; designed for increased damage upon withdrawal from a wound
Tactical AdvantageUndulating edge inflicts additional pain and injury during withdrawal; favored for unique appearance and functional benefits in combat
Blade DescriptionBroad, double-edged with varying degrees of waviness
FavorabilityFavored for its unique and intimidating appearance, along with its practical advantages in combat
Regional and Period UseEmployed in various regions and periods, contributing to the diversity of medieval weaponry
Historical SignificanceAdds to the rich tapestry of medieval weaponry, showcasing innovation in design to enhance effectiveness in battle

3. Swept-Hilt Claymore

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The Swept-Hilt Claymore is a type of two-handed sword that emerged in Scotland during the late medieval period. Recognized for its distinctive hilt design, this Claymore features quillons (crossguards) that are elegantly curved or “swept,” providing enhanced hand protection during combat.

The swept-hilt design aimed to safeguard the wielder’s hand from incoming attacks while allowing for effective offensive maneuvers. The blade typically displayed a broad, double-edged profile, optimizing cutting power. The Swept-Hilt Claymore gained prominence in the 16th and 17th centuries and became synonymous with the Scottish Renaissance. It served as a symbol of status and military prowess among Highland warriors.

The hilt’s intricate design not only offered practical advantages in battle but also showcased the craftsmanship of skilled swordsmiths. Over time, variations in blade length and hilt ornamentation emerged based on individual preferences and regional influences.

NameSwept-Hilt Claymore
OriginEmerged in Scotland during the late medieval period
Distinctive FeatureNoted for a hilt with elegantly curved or “swept” quillons (crossguards) providing enhanced hand protection
Tactical PurposeSwept-hilt design aimed at safeguarding the wielder’s hand from attacks while enabling effective offensive maneuvers
Blade DescriptionBroad, double-edged profile optimizing cutting power
ProminenceGained prominence in the 16th and 17th centuries; synonymous with the Scottish Renaissance; symbol of status and military prowess
Craftsmanship and VariationThe Hilt’s intricate design showcases the craftsmanship of skilled swordsmiths; variations in blade length and hilt ornamentation based on preferences and regional influences over time

4. Basket-Hilted Claymore

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The Basket-Hilted Claymore is a distinctive Scottish two-handed sword that gained prominence from the late 16th to the 18th century. Its defining feature is the basket-shaped hilt, a complex guard that resembled a cage or basket, providing superior hand protection in combat. The basket hilt typically featured a combination of bars and plates, forming an intricate structure around the wielder’s hand.

The Basket-Hilted Claymore evolved during a time when firearm use increased, and swordsmen sought improved hand protection. The basket hilt not only defended against attacks but also allowed for a variety of gripping positions, enhancing versatility in battle. Variations in blade design existed, ranging from broad cutting blades to more tapered thrusting blades.

These swords became synonymous with the Highland warriors and were often carried as a symbol of status. The Basket-Hilted Claymore’s popularity extended beyond Scotland, influencing the development of basket-hilted swords in other European regions.

NameBasket-Hilted Claymore
OriginGained prominence in Scotland from the late 16th to the 18th century
Defining FeatureDistinctive basket-shaped hilt, forming a cage-like guard for superior hand protection in combat
Hilt StructureThe basket hilt comprised bars and plates, creating an intricate structure around the wielder’s hand
Evolution and PurposeDeveloped during increased firearm use; aimed at improving hand protection; allowed various gripping positions for enhanced versatility in battle
Blade VariationsVaried blade designs, from broad cutting blades to more tapered thrusting blades
Symbolism and PopularitySynonymous with Highland warriors; often carried as a symbol of status; popularity extended beyond Scotland, influencing the development of basket-hilted swords in other European regions

Historical Context of Medieval Claymore Sword

Claymore Swords is a compelling tapestry woven into the fabric of medieval and Renaissance Scotland, embodying not only the technological prowess of its time but also the cultural and political landscapes that shaped its existence.

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Origins and Development of Claymore Swords

The genesis of the claymore can be traced back to the late 15th century, a period marked by the intensification of conflicts and power struggles in Scotland. As feudalism gave way to a more centralized authority, the need for a versatile and powerful weapon became apparent. The claymore emerged as a response to this demand, characterized by a robust two-edged blade and the distinctive basket hilt.

Highland Warfare and Clan Identity

The claymore quickly became synonymous with the Highland warriors and their clans, reflecting the tumultuous history of the region. Highland warfare, characterized by rugged terrains and close-quarters combat, necessitated a weapon that could adapt to these challenging conditions.

The claymore, with its combination of slashing and thrusting capabilities, became the weapon of choice for Scottish warriors defending their territories and asserting clan identities.

The Jacobite Uprisings of Highlander Claymore

The 17th and 18th centuries saw the Claymore prominently featured in the Jacobite uprisings, a series of conflicts that sought to restore the Stuart monarchy to the British throne. Highland clans played a significant role in these uprisings, and the claymore became a symbol of resistance.

The battles of Killiecrankie, Sheriffmuir, and Culloden witnessed the claymore in action, leaving an indelible mark on the pages of Scottish history.

Transition to Symbolic Heritage

As the geopolitical landscape shifted, and the Act of Union in 1707 brought about changes in Scottish military attire, the claymore transitioned from a practical battlefield weapon to a symbol of cultural heritage. Its historical significance and association with a bygone era turned it into an emblem of Scottish pride and identity.

Legacy in Art and Literature

Beyond its military role, the claymore found its way into the cultural and artistic expressions of Scotland. Paintings, poems, and songs immortalized the sword, portraying it as a symbol of bravery and nationalistic fervor. The works of Sir Walter Scott and the romanticization of Scottish history further cemented the claymore’s place in the collective imagination.

Diversified Faces of Claymore Blades Across Regions

Scotland’s topography bears witness to three culturally distinct domains: the Lowlands, the East or Central Highlands, and the West Highlands. These diverse landscapes intricately shaped the evolution and deployment of the two-handed claymore swords.

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The heartlands of Scottish influence, Stirling and Edinburgh, nestled in the Lowlands, housing the sovereign, his nobility, and the national military apparatus. Consequently, the Lowland claymore became the weapon of choice for esteemed men, symbolizing royal authority.

Another variant, the Clamshell claymore, found utility as a versatile implement in regions far removed from the capital, particularly amidst the tumultuous Border Reivers inhabiting the lawless borderlands, engaging in perpetual feuds.

East Highlands

Organized along feudal lines, the East Highlands fostered a society structured around clans, boasting Gaelic and Anglo-Norman origins. Interaction with the northern Lowland populace led to the adoption of the Clamshell Claymore within this region.

West Highlands

Natural barriers divided the West Highlanders from their Eastern counterparts, leading to minimal interaction. With certain territories previously constituting a sub-kingdom of Norway, Norse origins permeated several clans.

Consequently, the West Highlands embraced a post-Viking era maritime culture, even incorporating swords influenced by Scandinavian design. This unique milieu gave rise to the West Highland claymore, an all-encompassing weapon for the denizens of this distinctive region.


Between the years 1400 and 1700, the Scots wielded the formidable two-handed claymore swords in the crucible of clan warfare, etching a storied chapter in Scotland’s martial chronicles. The claymore legacy endures, with the 18th-century basket-hilted broadsword emerging as its contemporary emblem.

A nuanced debate persists regarding the rightful classification of a true claymore, pitting the two-handed variant against the basket-hilted counterpart. Despite the semantic divergence, both incarnations bear weighty significance in the annals of Scotland’s military heritage, shaping a narrative where the past’s resonance lingers in the present.


What are Claymores?

Claymores are Scottish two-handed swords, historically wielded in clan warfare from 1400 to 1700, shaping Scotland’s military legacy.

How much does a Claymore weigh?

A claymore typically weighs between 5 to 7 pounds, balancing the need for heft and maneuverability in combat.

How long is a Claymore?

A standard claymore measures around 55 to 60 inches in length, providing reach and leverage in historical Scottish warfare.

Which is stronger the Claymore or Katana?

Claymore is stronger, and comparing strength is subjective; the Claymore’s robustness suits European combat, while the Katana excels in precision and flexibility for Japanese styles.


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Claymore Swords: The Power of Famous Scottish Weaponry (2024)
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